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Using Hair Extensions for the First Time

I have worn my hair really short for most of my life. When I started dating my boyfriend about two years ago, he told me he would love to see what I look like with long hair. I knew he was the one for me, and I wanted to make him smile so I decided to grow it out. That is not something that happens overnight though. I was patient for the most part, but I admit that I cheated a few months ago and ordered curly clip in hair extensions to speed up the process.

I went online since I order just about everything that way. I have found that I can usually find the cheapest price this way rather than going to a local store where the competition is not as fierce.

Renovation Malaysia – 5 Must Do in a Renovation

Before you start on planning to renovate your house, you will need to consider whether you are renovating your house to become your dream home or you are renovating for better property price. It is vital for you to make a plan for your renovation as renovation is a long term investment, you decision control the consequences down the time.


If you plan to live in that house instead of selling it to someone as an investment of profits, then you should take serious about what you really like and turn them into reality in your renovation.

Here are 5 must do before you start your renovation project.

Have a Clear Goal

Set your targets/goal and plan ahead. Work on a timeline and review on it every few days and keep yourself to stay on track.

Don’t forget about the Council

Get the approval from the council can take some time so try to get it start earlier; requirement may be vary for each type of renovation work, you will need to complete a range of formal development application for the renovation and also prepare the proposal and building plan for it.

Realistic in Your Budget

Overspending is normal among renovators in our country, that’s why a realistic planning and budget is important before you start on the renovation.

Create a list of what you want and what you need, from your door knobs to your bathroom sinks, know exactly what will you need to pay for them and the labor fees as well, spare some extra percentage for your renovation to avoid any special event that happened during the renovation.

Serenity is a stunning modern rented luxury home in Camps Bay. I've been fortunate enough to photograph is several times and it features in one of my blogs

Serenity is a stunning modern rented luxury home in Camps Bay. I’ve been fortunate enough to photograph is several times and it features in one of my blogs

Be Savvy on Renovation Project

If you wish to save some on your renovation project, you could be your own project manager, or even doing some of the work yourself.

For project managing, it means you will need to organize and relocate the trade and make sure everything works as what you have planned. However, it is important to make sure you have some experience in handling the project, otherwise you will end up wasting your effort and hire someone to work on your project.

Compare All

Last thing that you need to make sure is compare your renovation quotation, whether it is just some small painting work or the large scale renovation. Shop around your area and find some great deal for yourself.

Besides, don’t ever forget to make sure you hire the most suitable people for your renovation work, ask for the contractor’s portfolios and ask for previous client referrals. Never forget you as the homeowner and the boss in this situation have to pay for the price of all their work, so choose wisely.

A good planning can decides your renovation end up positive or in a negative way. If you could do it right, you will be rewarded with a brand new look and satisfaction on your house.

Or you could find a renovation specialist in Malaysia, get Compare. Design and Hire in Renovation Malaysia Platform and Renovation Kuala Lumpur Specialist –


Waterproof or water-resistant describes objects unaffected by water or resisting water passage, or which are covered with a material that resists or does not allow water passage. Such items may be used in wet environments or under water. Waterproofing describes making an object waterproof or water-resistant.

Waterproofing is a method by which an item is made resistant to damage by water.  Waterproofing is the formation of an impervious barrier which is designed to prevent water entering or escaping from various sections of building structures. Internal areasthat are waterproofed include bathrooms, shower recesses, laundries and toilets. Whilst an External area waterproofed extends to roofs, planter boxes, podiums, balconies,retaining walls and swimming pools.

Waterproofing is the combination of materials or systems that prevent water intrusion into structural elements of the buildings or its finished spaces. Basic waterproofing and envelope design incorporates 3 steps to ensure a watertight and environmentally sound interior :

  1. Understanding water sources likely to be encountered
  2. Designing systems to prevent leakage from these sources.
  3. Finalizing the design by properly detailing each individual envelope component into adjacent components.


For leakage to occur, 3 conditions must be present

  • Water in any of its forms must be present.
  • Water must be moved along by some type of force, including wind, gravity for above-grade envelope components and hydrostatic pressure or capillary action for below-grade components.
  • Finally and the most important, there must be a breach (hole, brak, or some type of opening) in the envelope to facilitate the entry of water into the protected spaces

Available water is moved into the interior of a structure by numerous forces that include:

  • Natural gravity
  • Surface tension
  • Wind/Air currents
  • Capillary action
  • Hydrostatic pressure

The first 3 typically are encountered on above-grade portions of the envelope, whereas the last 2 are recognized at grade or below-grade areas of buildings or structures



In construction, a building or structure is waterproofed with the use of membranes to protect contents underneath or within as well as protecting structural integrity. The waterproofing of the building envelope in construction specifications is under ’07 – Thermal and Moisture’ protection and includes roofing material as well as waterproofing materials.

A building or structure needs waterproofing as concrete itself will not be watertight on its own. The conventional system of waterproofing involves ‘membranes’. This relies on the application of one or more layers of membrane (available in various materials: e.g., bitumen, silicate, PVC, HDPE, etc.) that act as a barrier between the water and the building structure, preventing the passage of water. However, the membrane system relies on exacting application, presenting difficulties. Problems with application or adherence to the substrate can lead to leakage.

Over the past two decades, the construction industry has had technological advances in waterproofing materials, including integral waterproofing systems as well as more advanced membrane materials.

Integral systems work within the matrix of a concrete structure, giving the concrete itself a waterproof quality. There are two main types of integral waterproofing systems: the hydrophilic and the hydrophobic systems. A hydrophilic system typically uses a crystallization technology that replaces the water in the concrete with insoluble crystals. Various brands available in the market claim similar properties, but not all can react with a wide range of cement hydration by-products, and thus require caution. Hydrophobic systems use fatty acids to block pores within the concrete, preventing water passage.

New membrane materials include

Hydrotech’s Monolithic Membrane 6125 (MM6125) and

Re-New’s Turbo Seal.

These new materials seek to overcome shortcomings in older methods like PVC and HDPE. Generally, new technology in waterproof membranes relies on polymer based materials that are extremely adhesive to create a seamless barrier around the outside of a structure.

If we bifurcate a structure in to different categories with respect to waterproofing perhaps we can classify the structure in to following: –

  1. Waterproofing of foundations
  2. Waterproofing of basements
  3. Waterproofing of bathrooms and toilets,
  4. Waterproofing of terraces

Waterproofing of the above mentioned areas needs a detailed site investigation in case of old construction but in new construction if the proper methodology and proper materials are used the structure can be made waterproof for period of five years extended to twenty years depending on the materials used for waterproofing. In this project, we will try to understand different techniques used to waterproof foundations and basements only but before that we will try to understand what are the methods used in waterproofing any part of structure with the help of an flowchart.



A wet cellar can dramatically reduce the value of your home. Studies show that most people won’t even consider buying a home with water leakage. Selling a home with water leaks can easily result in as much as a 25% reduction in the sale price.

Even if you rarely have problems with dampness or flooding, it’s best to solve the problem completely before doing any remodeling work. Permanent solutions can take time to implement. A good place to start is to talk to an independent home inspector who specializes in waterproofing problems.

Proper insulation is critical to creating a comfortable, dry basement. Besides keeping out the cold, basement insulation prevents condensation. The ground stays cool year round. It in turn keeps basement walls cool. When the warmer air in the room comes in contact with all those cool walls, it has to give up some of its moisture in the form of condensation. In fact, condensation is the primary source of the moisture that causes mold and mildew problems in basements. Effective insulation separates the warm air of the room from the cool walls, thereby preventing the moisture problems that stem from condensation. (see below the top-10 most common insulation mistakes in basements)


The various defects caused by dampness in buildings may be summarized as under:

  1. It causes efflorescence which may ultimately result in disintegration of bricks, stone, tiles, etc.
  2. It may result in softening and crumbling of plaster.
  3. It may cause bleaching and flaking of paint with the information of colored patches.
  4. It may result in warping, buckling and rotting of timber.
  5. It may lead to corrosion of metal
  6. It may deteriorate electrical fittings.
  7. It promotes growth of termites.
  8. It breeds mosquitoes and creates unhealthy living conditions for the occupants.

Absorption of moisture by the building materials is one of the chief cause of dampness. On account of granular nature of materials, moisture finds an easy access through the voids and this aided by capillary action assists the moisture to travel in different directions. Thus, either on account of faulty design of structure or bad workmanship or by use of defective materials, moisture may find its way to interior of the building either through the foundation and plinth, walls, chhajjas, floors or the roof.


The important sources of dampness may be summarized as below:-

  1. Dampness rising through the foundation walling. Moisture from wet ground may rise well above ground level on account of capillary action.
  2. Splashing rain water which rebounds after hitting the wall surface may also cause dampness.
  3. Penetration of rain-water through unprotected tops of walls, parapets, compound walls etc. may cause dampness.
  4. In case of slope roofs rain-water may percolates through defective roof covering. In addition, faulty eaves course and eaves or valley gutter may allow the rain-water to descend through the top of supporting wall and cause dampness.
  5. On condensation, the moisture present in the atmosphere gets deposited on the components of the building which may cause dampness.
  6. In case of flats roofs, inadequate roof slopes, improper rain-water pipe connections and defective junction between roof slab and parapet wall may prove to be the sources of dampness.

Dampness caused due to leakages in wet areas of a building which include kitchen, bathroom, water closet etc. The leakages could be on account of use of sub-standard plumbing fittings and fixtures as well as faulty execution of work and bad work-man ship.


The moisture finds its way through the pores of materials used in finishing. In order to check the entry of the moisture into the pores, they must be filled up. Surface treatment consists in filling up the pores of the surface subjected to dampness. The use of water repellent metallic soaps such as calcium and aluminum oleates and stearates is much effective in protecting the building against the ravages of heavy rain. Bituminous solution, cement coating, transparent coating, paints and varnishes fall under this category. In addition to other surface treatments given to walls, the commonly used is lime cement plaster. The wall plaster with cement, lime and sand mixed in proportion of 1:1:6 are found to serve the purpose of preventing dampness in wall due to rain effectively.


An effective damp proofing material should have the following properties:

  1. It should be impervious.
  2. It should be strong and durable be capable of withstanding both dead as well as live loads without  damage.
  3. It should be dimensionally stable.
  4. It should be free from deliquescent salts like sulphates, chlorides and nitrates.

The material commonly used to check dampness can be divided into the following four categories:

  1. Flexible material:- material like bitumen felts ( which may be Hessian –base or fibre/glass fibre-based) , plastic sheeting ( polythene sheet) etc.
  2. Semi-rigid material: – Material like mastic asphalt or combination of material or layers.
  3. Rigid material:- Material like first class bricks, stones, slates, cement concrete etc.
  4. Grout consisting of cement slurry and acrylic based chemicals/polymers.

Mold and Mildew
Fungus that grows in damp and dark areas, and cause discoloration, or musty odors.

Moldy Odors
This is the result of the decay process from mold, and dry rot.

Peeling Paint
Peeling paint is a sign that you have moisture problems and waterproofing issues.

Damp Spots on Walls
Water has absorbed through your walls.

White Substance on Basement Walls
This is a chemical breakdown of the bonding agent that holds your walls together. This white substance is a sign of possible structural deterioration.

Cracked Walls
Should be inspected to determine the exact cause.

Rust on Appliances or Furniture
Like furnaces. Rust is caused by a wet environment and is the sign of waterproofing issues.

Dry Rot
Black fungus grows mostly on walls or wooden surfaces, causing wood to decay.


Water may enter a basement through various means including through joints, walls, or floors. Various basement waterproofing systems address these problems. There are many systems available of varying cost, effectiveness, and installation invasiveness.

We shall now discuss few methods of waterproofing basements.


This treatment is presently being commonly adopted for ensuring water tightness of basement in damp soil or at site where sub soil water table is high. The treatment consists in enclosing the entire basement with in a water proof box constructed by use of rough stone slabs and cement mortar admixed with acrylic based chemical.

The steps are as followed:-

Step 1:- The excavation of the ground for the basement is carried out in such a way that a working space of at least 750 mm is available around the periphery of the external walls of the proposed basement. The excavated area is kept dry by continuous pumping using well-point equipment or by adopting any other suitable method. Over the dry leveled ground a 75 to 100 mm thick layer of lean concrete 1:3:6 is laid to serve as mud mat or leveling course for the raft slab. This layer of lean concrete should project by 150 mm beyond the external wall. Over the layer of lean concrete a layer of 15 to 20 mm thick rough quarry-finished stone slabs is laid over 20 mm thick cement mortar (1:4) admixed with acrylic based chemical. The stone slabs are laid side by side leaving a gap of about 15 to 20 mm between them. The joints thus left are raked open and ground with cement slurry admixed with acrylic based chemical. A 20 mm thick layer of cement mortar (1:4) admixed with acrylic based compound is laid over the stone slabs stone chips 12 mm & down are embedded at random in this layer of mortar.

The total maximum thickness of the above water proofing layer should be around 6 60 mm. This layer should cover the entire area of lean concrete i.e. it should be extended 150 mm beyond the external face of raft slab/walls.

Step 2:- The R.C.C. raft slab suitably designed to with stand the highest applicable water pressure during monsoon is laid over the water proofing layer in step 1. The R.C.C. walls of the basement are constructed monolithically with the R.C.C. raft. After the curing of the R.C.C. wall is over, the water proofing treatment is continued unbroken on the external sides of the walls, so as to form an external box of the water proofing level.

Step 3:- To continue the treatment along the vertical plane, a groove about 30 to 40 mm deep is made in top mortar layer or bottom layer of the water proofing treatment [laid in step (1) ]at a clear distance of about 18 mm from the external face of the wall all along the periphery of the basement. Rough quarry-finished stone slabs 15 mm to 20 mm in thickness are fixed vertically in the above groove.

The stone slabs are fixed side by side without leaving any gap between the edges. Maximum of two to three horizontal layers of stone are laid at a time one over the other vertically up. A coat of very rough cement plaster (1:4) is applied to the external face of the rough stones. After the layer is set, the gap between the wall and stone layer is filled with a grout made up of cement slurry admixed with acrylic based chemical, which on gellation forms an impermeable layer, monolithic with the external face of the wall.

A final coat of 15 mm cement mortar plaster (1:4) is applied over the rough external cement plaster and finished smoothly. This treatment to external face of walls is continued up to 300 mm above ground level. The acrylic based chemical is normally added @ 1 % i.e. 1 kg of chemical to be mixed with 100kg of cement.


Description: – Waterbars are flexible PVC water stops to seal construction and expansion joints in concrete structures.

Uses: – Waterbars are used in concrete for the sealing of construction and expansion joints. It is installed in a specified position, allowing concrete to be poured around it.  The material takes up it’s function as a joint sealant once the concrete has hardened and a joint has been formed.  Depending on the type of Waterbar, it can be used for construction or expansion joints.

Advantages: –

  • Multi-rib sections provide a tortuous path and impenetrable water check.
  • Easy to fix using tie-clips (See below photo)
  • Easy on-site welding.
  • High strength PVC material.

Specifications: – Waterbars comply with: U.S. Corporation of Engineers Specification. CRD-C572-74. Requirements of BS2571 and BS2782.

Application: –

SURFACE WATERBARS: Installed into the face of the concrete structure. The waterbar is typically fixed on the water side of the concrete wall or floor, by attaching it temporarily to the formwork using fixing wire. The protruding ribs become cast into the concrete to provide an excellent watertight seal as well as securely anchoring the waterbar to the structure.

INTERNAL WATERBARS:  The waterbar is fitted into split formwork or shuttering for casting centrally into the concrete.  Use fixing wire or tie-clips to attach waterbar to internal reinforcement.

WELDING:  Waterbars are made from thermoplastic PVC and cantherefore be welded.  The ends are heated with on-site welding equipment until the PVC becomes plastic and is then immediately pressed together. Waterbars allow easy on-site welding, including the prefabrication of cross, T, L and corner pieces.

Profiles: –

Centerstop: – Centrally placed Waterbars O type section is used in expansion, contraction and construction joints. The bulb in the centre allows for movement in the structure to be accommodated for. The waterstops are easily anchored to the steel reinforcement using special tie-clips.

Rearguard Construction: – The externally placed rearguard Waterbars AR sections are used in construction and contraction joints. The centrally placed fin assists with shutter locations.

Rearguard Expansion: – The externally placed rearguard Waterbars DR sections are designed with a flat top box section, with a protruding fin, to assist with positioning and to provide a chair to support the joint filler. The section is used in expansion joints to accommodate movement.

Intersection: – A wide range of standard intersection pieces are available. All have a minimum 200mm free leg, allowing easy butt-welding on site. For nonstandard types, drawings must be provided, giving exact details of angles and length of legs. Standard intersection pieces include: X, T and L pieces both flat and on edge.

Technical Data: –

            Basis                                                               :           Polyvinyl Chloride

            Colour                                                            :           Yellow

            Density                                                           :           1.3kg/litre

            Service Temperature                                    :           -35°C to 55°C

            Hydrostatic Head                                          :           Up to 60 metres

            Joint Movement                                             :           Up to 10 mm (expansion joint

profiles only)

Tensile Strength (ASTM-D412-75)              :           longitudinal > 13 N/mm² transverse

> 12.5²  N/mm2

            Elongation at Break (ASTM-D412-75)       :           longitudinal > 310% transverse >


            Alkali Resistance (CRD-C572-65)               :           Passed

Important: – Good placement practice must be followed to ensure that concrete is well placed and compacted around the Waterbar during installation. In the case of factory made junctions, where angles are not 90°C, drawing must be provided giving exact joint details. Other profile types and widths are available upon request (depending on volume).


Description: – Liquid Applied Cementitious Membrane is the materials which are available in two components and sometimes three components depending on the manufacturer. The two components consist of Liquid and Powder. The Liquid is a mixture of polymers and water, these polymers acts as strength providing material when mixed with Powder which is generally a cement based material. Is a high performance two component flexible acrylic polymers modified cement based waterproof coating for concrete and masonry surfaces. The system consists of a powder and a liquid, is grey in colour and easily applied by brush.

Features and Benefits: –

  • Provides excellent impermeable coating
  • Heavy duty waterproof coating
  • Good adhesion with cementitious surfaces
  • Applied for Positive & negative sides of waterproofing
  • Easily Brush applied
  • Flexible enough to take care of minor cracks in concrete & plaster
  • Durable & economical
  • Non-flammable
  • Application tools easily washed in water
  • Available in pre-packed, ready-to-use containers

Method of Application: –

  • The RCC walls and the base slab of basement must be cured for 28 days minimum before applying liquid applied cementitious membrane. The condition of walls and base slab must be assessed carefully for any irregularities and cavities. All the cold joints must be inspected for its water tightness. If required, inject cement slurry admixed with expansive grouts should be injected into the cold joints.
  • Prepare the surface carefully to receive the first coat of the material. All the loose particles and debris must be removed with the help of wire brush. The grouting holes must be finished to level and ensure that they are properly sealed with suitable material.
  • The entire area must be thoroughly wetted with water to a state where it is saturated. But extra care must be taken to see that there is no stagnant or standing water. Any such water must be mopped off. As such, the concrete substrate to receive the treatment must be in a Saturated Surface Dry Condition.
  • Mix both the parts i.e. Liquid and Powder with a slow speed (100 – 150 RPM) forced action mixer for big quantity of 15 kg, to achieve an even consistency.
  • All the powder lumps formed during mixed must be hand crushed completely. PLEASE DO NOT ADD WATER during mixing. For large application areas, take up a quantity that can be mixed and applied in 20 – 30 minutes.
  • ALWAYS ADD the POWDER component into the LIQUID and NOT the LIQUID into the powder.
  • Over the properly pre-wetted surface, apply first coat at a thickness of 500-600 microns and allow it dry for 5-6 hours. Apply the 2 coats at the same thickness. The total applied thickness should be of minimum 1.5 mm in three coats.
  • Allow each coat to dry sufficiently before applying next coat.
  • Allow Dr. Fixit Pidifin 2K film to air cure for atleast 72 hours.

Precautions and Limitations: –

  • Must be protected from foot traffic & other physical abuse
  • Do not pond with water immediately after the 2nd coat. Allow it air to cure for atleast 72 hours
  • Pre-wetting of the substrate is essential before coating
  • Film thickness of 1 to 1.2 mm must be achieved in 2 coats. For a critical areas 1.5 mm thick film is recommended to be achieved in 3 coats
  • Must be applied on totally cured surface
  • Do not undertake application in hot sun (above 300C) and below 100C
  • Do not dilute product with water at site.


These membranes are perhaps the best for waterproofing of terraces having large spans, also when the concept of terrace garden or roof swimming pools is used. It is entirely a bituminous product and requires a primer and the membrane for application on to the surface. The membrane is slightly melted with the heat which is shown in the pictures and thus the best waterproofing can be achieved for atleast 25 years. The finished membrane is over coated with a paint of aluminum to give heat proofing.

Primer application: –

Apply solvent-based bitumen primer on cleaned & leveled surface @ 3-5 The priming will enhance the adhesion of the membrane to the substrate. Allow the primer coat to dry. The drying will generally depend on the ambient temperature.

Membrane Application

Starting from one end, unroll the TORCHSHIELD roll once the priming coat is dried. Align the TORCHSHIELD roll correctly & re-roll it half in alignment before torching. Avoid shifting of the membrane while torching Use gas burner to heat substrate & underside to softening points. When the embossing disappears, roll forward & press firmly against substrate. Ensure sufficient bleed on side & end over laps. Once the half of the roll is torched properly to the substrate, unroll the balance roll and repeat the process. An overlap of 100-mm shall be maintained for all the continuing sides. Heating shall be done on both the membranes to be overlapped and pressed firmly with the help of round shape trowel. The care shall be taken to leave no gap at any point in the overlapped area. If noticed, reheating shall be done to seal it. The Torchshield must be laid over the entire PCC area with a minimum of 150 mm over hang from the size of raft on all sides.


The Torchshield membranes shall be protected against damage by laying sand cement mortar in 1:4 ratio at 15 to 20 mm thickness. Cure the surface for 7 days before starting the work for laying RCC raft or column footings.

Method of Application

The entire external surface of the wall shall be prepared properly and made ready to receive the waterproofing treatment. All the honeycomb areas, undulations, cracks shall be filled with polymer modified mortar. For which Dr. Fixit Polymer Mortar PX shall be used as per the standard material specification.

Primer Application

Bitumen based primer shall be applied as explained above over the entire surface and shall be allowed to dry.

Membrane Application

Torchshield  shall be applied as per the standard installation practices as explained above over the dried primer. Before the application of Torchshield begins over the wall, a corner rounding / angle fillet shall be made at the junction of PCC and Raft to avoid the right angle bend of membrane.
The application of membrane shall begin from the edge of PCC with a sufficient lap of 100 mm minimum with the bottom membrane (over PCC) and to be taken over raft thickness and then over the wall. An overlapping of 100 mm must be ensured with the subsequent membrane with all sides. The fixing shall be done from the PCC level moving horizontally first and then vertically. All the lap joints and termination shall be done as per standard specifications as explained earlier.

Clean & remove dust, dirt, loose particles and unsound substrate Apply primer coat with solvent based bitumen primer Unroll the TORCHSHIELD roll
Align the Torchshield Roll Use gas burner to heat substrate & underside to softening points Keep overlap margin for minimum 100 mm
Heat both the overlaps & use round tipped trowel to seal overlap Seal the edges well
and protect with a Polysulphide sealant
Torchshield applied all over the terrace


The back filling can start simultaneously as one move upward. Before back filling begins, the membrane shall be protected either with plaster or with a protection board.
For plaster, sand shall be sprinkled over the membranes as soon as it is fixed after torching. The plastering shall be done in 1:3 sand cement mortar at 15 mm thickness. Thermocol in 20 mm thickness can be used as a protection board. The cold bitumen (mastic) can be used for fixing the Thermocol over the Torchshield. Once the Thermocol is fixed, back filling can start in layers. This will allow people to work comfortably as it will create the platform to work as one move upwards.


Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process of formation of solid crystalsprecipitating from a uniform solution or melt, or more rarely deposited directly from agas. Crystallization is also a chemical solid-liquid separation technique, in which mass transfer of a solute from the liquid solution to a pure solid crystalline phase occurs.

Process: –

            The crystallization process consists of two major events, nucleation and crystal growth. Nucleation is the step where the solute molecules dispersed in the solvent start to gather into clusters, on the nanometer scale (elevating solute concentration in a small region), that becomes stable under the current operating conditions. These stable clusters constitute the nuclei. However when the clusters are not stable, they redissolve. Therefore, the clusters need to reach a critical size in order to become stable nuclei. Such critical size is dictated by the operating conditions (temperature, supersaturation, etc.). It is at the stage of nucleation that the atoms arrange in a defined and periodic manner that defines the crystal structure — note that “crystal structure” is a special term that refers to the relative arrangement of the atoms, not the macroscopic properties of the crystal (size and shape), although those are a result of the internal crystal structure.

The crystal growth is the subsequent growth of the nuclei that succeed in achieving the critical cluster size. Nucleation and growth continue to occur simultaneously while the supersaturation exists. Supersaturation is the driving force of the crystallization, hence the rate of nucleation and growth is driven by the existing supersaturation in the solution. Depending upon the conditions, either nucleation or growth may be predominant over the other, and as a result, crystals with different sizes and shapes are obtained (control of crystal size and shape constitutes one of the main challenges in industrial manufacturing, such as for pharmaceuticals). Once the supersaturation is exhausted, the solid-liquid system reaches equilibrium and the crystallization is complete, unless the operating conditions are modified from equilibrium so as to supersaturate the solution again.

Many compounds have the ability to crystallize with different crystal structures, a phenomenon called polymorphism. Each polymorph is in fact a different thermodynamic solid state and crystal polymorphs of the same compound exhibit different physical properties, such as dissolution rate, shape (angles between facets and facet growth rates), melting point, etc. For this reason, polymorphism is of major importance in industrial manufacture of crystalline products.

Description: –

            It is a unique chemical treatment for the waterproofing and protection of concrete that is suitable for the following applications:

  • Foundation walls
  • Basement walls
  • Manholes
  • Parking decks
  • Reservoirs
  • Sewage and water treatment tanks
  • Tunnels
  • Underground vaults

It can be used on either poured-in-place concrete or concrete block and can be applied to either the interior or exterior surface with equal results.

Characteristics: –

It waterproofs underground structures from the inside against hydrostatic pressure. By the process of diffusion and the materials have an affinity with water, the crystalline formation migrates throughout the pores and capillary tracts of concrete even against strong hydrostatic pressure. When mixed with water and applied as a cementitious coating, the active chemicals cause a catalytic reaction which generates a nonsoluble  crystalline formation of dendritic fibers within the pores and capillary tracts of concrete. Thus, the concrete itself becomes permanently sealed against the penetration of water or liquids from any direction.

It protects concrete and reinforcing steel. This treatment is highly resistant to most aggressive substances, pH 3 – 11 constant contact and pH 2 – 12 periodic contact. By preventing the intrusion of chemicals, salt water, sewage and other harmful materials, It protects concrete and reinforcing steel from deterioration and oxidation. The concrete is also protected against spalling, efflorescence, popouts and other damages caused by weathering, bleeding of the salts and internal expansion and contraction during the freeze/thaw cycle.

Crystallization permits concrete to breathe. The crystalline formation has fixed-size air spaces so small that water cannot pass through. It does allow the passage of air and vapor; thus the concrete is able to breathe and become thoroughly dry, preventing moisture vapor buildup. These products are nontoxic. They have been approved by NSF International (National Sanitation Foundation), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Agriculture Canada and many other governmental health agencies throughout the world for use on concrete structures that hold potable water or are in contact with foodstuffs.

Advantages: –

  • Not just a surface coating – Not dependent upon continuity of membrane for waterproofing action.
  • Seals hairline cracks upto 0.4 mm.
  • No surface priming or leveling required.
  • Cannot puncture, tear or come apart at the seams.
  • Does not require protection during backfilling or during placement of steel, wire mesh or other materials.
  • Can be applied to moist or green concrete
  • Less costly to apply than most other waterproofing methods.

Types: –

            Crystalline waterproofing technology is available in 3 forms:

  • As a coating – For new or existing structures.
  • As a dry shake material – For new horizontal surfaces.
  • As an admixture – Included in the concrete mix at the time of batching.

Concentrate: –

Used as a single coating on above- or below grade concrete, or as the first of a 2-coat application where 2 coats are required. Also used as a Dry-Pac for sealing construction joints and for repair of cracks, faulty construction joints and honeycombing. Concentrate is the most chemically potent of the crystalline waterproofing materials.

Modified: –

Used as a second coat to reinforce Concentrate where 2-coats are required and as a single coat for exterior damp proofing.

Concentrate DS1 and DS2: –

Dry shake formulations designed for application on fresh horizontal concrete prior to finishing operations.

Admix: –

Used as an integral waterproofing admixture which is included in the concrete mix at the time of batching.

Patch’n Plug: –

Fast-setting, nonshrink, high bond strength hydraulic cement compound for concrete repairs. Stops flowing water in seconds. Patch’n Plug seals cracks and tie holes. It is also used for the general repair or patching of concrete. Patch’n Plug can be used in conjunction with Admix to increase the compressive strength and bond strength of existing concrete.

Acrylic Admix: –

An acrylic polymer formulation specifically designed for use as an admix to fortify Portland cement mixes. Acrylic Admix increases hardness, durability, bonding capability and chemical resistance.

Gamma-Cure: –

Can be used as an alternative to water curing for certain applications.


Surface Preparation: –

  • Concrete surfaces to be treated must be clean and free of laitance, dirt, films, paint, coatings or other foreign matter.
  • Surfaces must also have an open capillary system so as to provide tooth and suction for treatment. If surfaces are too smooth, the concrete should be acid etched, lightly sandblasted or water blasted.
  • Structural defects such as cracks, faulty construction joints and honeycombing should be routed out to sound concrete and repaired.
  • Horizontal surfaces should have a rough wood float or broom finish. On fresh horizontal concrete Concentrate DS1 or DS2 powder can be power troweled into the surface while it is still in plastic state.

Wetting Concrete: –

                        Prior to the application, concrete surfaces must be thoroughly wetted with clean water to control surface suction, aid the proper curing of the treatment and ensure the growth of the crystalline formation deep within the pores of the concrete. Excess surface water should be removed before the application.

Methods: –

            To mix the product for slurry coat application, the Xypex powder is mixed with clean water to a creamy consistency in the following proportions by volume:

Mixing for Brush Application: –

  • Mix 5 parts powder to 2 parts of water (0.8 kg/m2).
  • Mix 3 parts powder to 1 part of water (1.0 kg/m2).

Mixing for Spray Application: –

  • Mix 5 parts powder to 3 parts water (0.8 kg/m2). The mix may vary with equipment type.

Mixing for Dry – Pac: –

  • Mix 6 parts Concentrate powder with 1 part clean water by volume. Do not mix too wet, other wise, mix may crack and spall at it dries.

Application: –

            The treatment should be applied with a semi-stiff bristle brush, a janitor’s broom for large horizontal applications, or with specialized spray equipment. The treatment must be uniformly applied under the conditions and quantities specified. One coat should have a thickness of 1/16″ (1.6 mm). When a second coat is required, it should be applied after the first coat has reached an initial set but is still green (less than 48 hours). Light pre-watering between coats may be required due to drying. The treatment cannot be applied in rain or during freezing conditions.

Spray Application of Crystalline

Brush Application of Crystalline

Curing: –

  • A misty for spray of water must be used for curing the treatment.
  • Curing must begin as soon as the coating has hardened sufficiently so that it is not damaged by a fine spray.
  • Under most conditions, it is sufficient to spray the material treated surfaces 3 times a day for 2 – 3 days.
  • In hot, dry weather, spraying may be required more frequently.
  • During the curing period, the treatment must be protected from rainfall, frost and puddling of water.



  1. PIDIPROOF LW (Specifications conforms to IS-2645) – Its an Integral liquid waterproofing compound for plaster and concrete.

Features / Benefits

  • Being a liquid, dispersible in concrete/mortar mixes.
  • Makes concrete/mortar more cohesive
  • Increases durability, by increase in impermeability.
  • Economical in application
  • Does not affect the setting time and strength.
  • Reduces shrinkage cracks in plaster and concrete
  • Shelf life : 1 year

Typical applications

            For waterproofing of concrete and sand-cement mortar used in basements, roof slabs and screeds, water retaining structures, external plastering,

Technical information

  • Base : Fatty acid
  • Total solid content : 13+0.5%
  • pH : High alkali


            200 ml per 50 kg bag of cement. Just add gauging water that is to be mixed with mortar/concrete.

  1. TONIC (Cement additive)

Features / Benefits

  • Delays corrosion by minimising chloride penetration
  • Increases workability for easy placement.
  • Increases strength and durability, by reducing water cement ratio.
  • Produces waterproof concrete/mortar by blocking capillaries/pores in the concrete
  • Shelf life : 1 year

Typical applications

            Dr. Fixit TONIC shall be added to all types of concrete and mortar to achieve water proof and durable concrete/mortar e.g. RCC column, beam, slab, water retaining structures, external plastering, screeds, water tanks, sumps and drains, etc.

Technical information

  • Base : Polymer modified Fatty acid
  • Total solid content : 13.50+0.5%
  • Specific gravity: 1.05+0.02
  • pH : High alkali


            200 ml per 50 kg bag of cement. Just add to gauging water that is to be mixed with mortar/concrete.

  1. PIDIFIN 2K(Certification by CFTRI, Mysore, for Portable water contact) – It is brush applied waterproofing coating for balconies, small terraces, wet areas & ledges

Features / Benefits

  • Provides excellent impermeable coating.
  • Good adhesion with cementaitious surfaces
  • Applied for positive & negative sides of waterproofing
  • Flexible enough to take care of minor cracks in concrete & plaster.
  • Durable and economical
  • Available in pre-packed, ready-to-use containers.
  • Shelf life : 6 months

Typical applications

  • Bathrooms and wet areas
  • Small terraces upto 1000 sq.ft.
  • Internal walls for prevention from seepage due to rain lash
  • Small water tanks interior surfaces (upto 30,000 ltrs. capacity)

Technical information

  • Appearance : Grey powder + white liquid
  • Mix ratio (Powder:Liquid) = 2:1(by weight)

1.5:1(by volume)

  • Pot life at 30 degree Celsius : Approx. 30 mins.
  • Application temp : Between 10-30 degree Celsius


            6-7 sq.ft./kg for 2 coats for total minimum thickness of 1 mm approximately. For protection against physical damage, a mortar screed of 15-25 mm thickness may be provided.


  1. PIDICRETE URP(SBR Latex for waterproofing and repairs)

Features / Benefits

  • White liquid, easily brush applied.
  • Useful as waterproofing coat.
  • Useful as a bonding agent between old and new concrete surfaces.
  • Excellent as a cement modifier.
  • Repair mortar modified with Dr.FIXIT Pidicrete URP suitable for repairing of RCC beams, columns, slabs and other RCC members
  • Shelf life : 1 year

Typical applications

  • Waterproofing of terraces, toilets, edge, masonary walls, sloping RCC roofs etc.
  • Repairs to RCC members
  • Waterproofing mortars/concretes.
  • As an additive in plasters at 5-6% by weight of cement content

Technical information

  • Total active solid content: 34+2%
  • pH : 8-9
  • Pot life : 30-45 minutes, when mixed with cement at 30 degree celsius


            20-22 sq.ft./kg for 2 coats(URP + cement in proportion 1:1.5)

  1. SUPER LATEX (SBR Latex for waterproofing and repairs)

Features / Benefits

  • Excellent coverage 70-80 sq.ft./kg in 2 coats, hence economical
  • Less material wastage: material does not fall back/rebound, when used as bonding agent.
  • High bond strength.
  • Prevents leakage and dampness.
  • Enhances strength of a repair mortar & provides durability.
  • Shelf life : 1 year

Typical applications

  • As a bond coat : Plaster to plaster, Concrete to concrete, for plaster over brick masonry.
  • As waterproof repair plaster.
  • Crack repair : Plaster cracks more than 5mm in gaps developed between masonry and RCC members
  • As coating for prevention of corrosion in rebars.
  • Efflorescence(salt petre/damp surfaces)

Technical information

  • Type : Styrene butadiene rubber polymer liquid
  • Colour : white
  • Storage condition : free from frost
  • Active solid content : 44+1%


            Mix (S.Latex:Water:Cement) = 1:4:7, 70-80 sq.ft./kg for 2 coats as a waterproof coating.

Definition of damp proofing


One of the essential requirements of a building is that it should be dry. Dampness in building may occur due to bad design, faulty construction and use of poor quality of materials. Dampness not only affects the life of building adversely, but also creates unhygienic condition for the occupants. The treatment given to prevent leakage of water from roof is generally termed as waterproofing, where as the treatment given to keep the walls, floors and basement dry is termed as damp proofing.

A damp proof course (DPC) is a physical barrier inserted into the fabric of a building to stop water passing from one place to another. This can be on a horizontal plane, stopping water rising up from the ground by being sucked up by the dry masonry above, or vertically to stop water passing from the outside of a building, though the masonry, to the inside. DPC’s have taken many forms through the ages and one of the earliest forms was to use a layer of slate in the construction. Slate is still used but the less expensive plastic version (below right) is now more widely used.


Causes of Dampness:

    The dampness in building is a universal problem and the various causes, which are responsible for the entry of dampness in a structure, are as follow.

1)      Rising of moisture from ground

The ground on which the building is construction may be made of soil, which easily allows the water to pass. Usually the building material used for the foundations, absorb moisture by capillary action. Thus the dampness finds its way to the floor through the sub structure.

                                                 Rising of grond water level

2)      Action of rain

If the faces of wall, exposed to heavy showers of rain, are not suitable is protected, the become sources of dampness in the structure. Similarly the leaking root also permits the rainwater to enter a structure.

3)      Exposed of top wall

                      The parapet wall and compound wall also should be providing with a damp proof course on the exposed tops. Otherwise the dampness entering thought these exposed tops of such walls may lead to serious result.

4)      Condensation

The process of condensation takes place when warm humid air is cooled. This is due to the fact that cool air can contain less invisible water vapour than warm air. The moisture deposits on the walls, floors and ceiling. This is the main causes in badly designed kitchen.

There are various causes of dampness as mention below

  1. If the site located on a site, which cannot be easily drained off, the dampness will be interring in structure.
  2. The orientation of a building is also an important factor, the wall obtaining less sunrise and heavy shower of rain are liable to become damp.
  3. The new constructed walls remains damp for short duration.
  4. Very flat slope of a roof may also lead the penetration of rain water which is temporary store on roof.
  5. The dampness also caused due to bad workmanship in construction

Such as defective joints in the roofs, improper connection of wall.

Effect of dampness

The building material such as bricks, timbers, concrete etc, has moisture content, which is not harmful under normal condition. The rise in moisture content of these materials beyond the certain level from where it come visible or when it deterioration leads to the real dampness. If absolute terms, the moisture content of different materials may be same, but the acceptable limit differs from material to material. For instance, the presence of 10 per cent by weight in timber is not harmful. But the same level could saturate a brick or cause deterioration of plaster.

The structure is badly affected by dampness. The prominent effect of dampness is as follow.

  1. A damp building gives rise to breeding of mosquitoes and creates unhealthy condition for those who occupy it.
  2. The metals used in the construction of material are corroded.
  3. The decay of timber takes place rapidly due to dry-rot in a damp atmosphere.
  4. The unsightly patches are formed on the wall surface and ceiling.
  5. The materials used as floor covering are serious damaged.
  6. It results in softening and crumbing of the plaster.
  7. The materials used for wall decoration are damaged and it leads to difficult and costly repairs.
  8. The flooring get loosened because of reduction in the adhesion when moisture enters through the floor.

Methods of damp proofing

Following methods are used for prevent the defect of dampness in structure

  1. Membrane damp-proofing
  2. Integral damp-proofing
  3. Surface treatment
  4. Guniting
  5. Cavity wall construction
  6. Membrane damp-proofing  

This consists in proving layer or membrane of water repellent material between the source of dampness and the part of the structure adjacent to it. This type of layer is commonly known as damp-proof course and it may comprise of material like bituminous felts, mastic asphalt, silicon, epoxy, polymers, plastic or polythene sheets, cement concrete etc depending upon the source of dampness, d.p.c may be provided horizontally or vertically in floor, walls etc. provision of d.p.c in basement is normally term as tanking.

Membrane damp proofing  

General Principles to be observed while laying  d.p.c are as under

  1. The d.p.c should cover full thickness of wall excluding rendering.
  2. The mortar bed upon which the d.p.c is to be laid should be made leveled, even and free projections. Uneven base is likely to cause damage to d.p.c.
  3. When a horizontal d.p.c is to be continued to a vertical face, a cement concrete fillet 75 mm in radius should be provided at the junction, prior to the treatment.
  4. Each d.p.c should be placed in correct relation to other d.p.c, so as to ensure a complete and continuous barrier to the passage of water from floors, walls or roofs.
  5. Integral damp proofing

                    This consists in adding certain water-proofing compound with the concrete mix to increase its impermeability. Such compounds are available in market in powdered as well as liquid form. The compounds made from clay, sand or lime help to fill the voids in concrete and make it water proof.

Another form of compound like alkaline silicate, aluminum sulphates, calcium chloride etc. react chemically when mixed in concrete to produce water proof concrete.

Pudlo, permo, impermo etc are some of the many commercially made preparations of water-proofing compound commonly used. The quantity of water proofing compound to be added to cement depends upon the manufacture recommendations. In general, one kg of water proofing compound is added with one bag of cement to render the mortar or concrete water-proofing.

  1. Surface treatment

The moisture finds its way through the pores of material used in finishing. In order to check the entry of the moisture into the pores, they must be filled up. Surface treatment consists in filling up the pores of the surface subjected to dampness. The use of water repellent metallic soaps such as calcium and aluminium oleates and stearates is much effective in protecting the building against the ravage of heavy rain. Bituminous solution, cement coating, transparent coatings, paints and varnishes fall under this category. In addition to other surface treatment given to walls, the one commonly used in lime cement plaster. The walls plastered with cement, lime and sand mixed in proportions of 1:1:6 is found to serve the purpose of preventing dampness in wall due to rain effectively.

Surface treatment

  1. Guniting

This consists in deposing an impervious layer of rich cement mortar over the surface to be water proofed. The operation is carried out by use of  a machine known as cementgun. The assembly broadly consists of a machine having arrangement for forcing the mixture under pressure through a 50 mm dia flexible hosepipe. The hosepipe has nozzle at its free end to which water is supplied under pressure through a separate connection.

The surface to be treated is first thoroughly cleaned of dirt, dust, grease or loose particles and wetted properly. Cement and sand usually taken in proportion of 1:3 to 1:4 are then fed into the machine. This mixture finally shot on the prepared surface under a pressure of 2 to 3 kg/cm2 by holding the nozzle of the cement gun at a distance of 75 to 90 cm from the working face. The quantity of water in the mix can be controlled by means of regulating value provided in the water supply hose attachment. Since the material is applied under pressure it ensures dense compaction and better adhesion of the rich cement mortar and hence the treated surface becomes waterproof.



Cavity wall construction

This consists in shielding the main wall of the building by an outer skin wall leaving a cavity in between the two. The cavity prevents the moisture from traveling from outer to the inner wall.

Cavity wall construction

Droge Building construction almost done (photo tour)

The last time this blog visited the site of the Droge Building, on the corner of Van Ness and Inyo, it was June 2014 and the wooden frame was up. A couple of weeks ago, I stopped by to see what is almost the final product. Exterior anyway, the interior won’t be done until this summer.

Unlike every other residential project downtown, this one stands at 4 stories, and you can really feel the difference from the 2-3 that GV Urban builds. The extra height really makes the corner feel more urban. Also, as this project was done by the Fresno Housing Authority, we get a unique facade, and not the recycled one used by GV.

Even better – no surface parking, which usually takes up most of the GV lots. There is a small garage, which residents can access through the existing alley, and not a new driveway. However, that’s only a few spaces, as there is a public garage directly across the street which residents will be able to rent a space in.

Incidentally, the project is actually called “City View at Van Ness.” Droge was the name of the building that was demolished, but I used the same in the title for consistency.

Let’s take a look:

Prominent look at the corner, good color scheme

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I love the balconies

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Spiral garage visible on the left

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Sadly, like all downtown projects, the street lights continue to suck. However, the accent sidewalk lighting looks very good

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The building has an interior courtyard

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Alley and garage visible on the side

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Ok, continuing with many more pictures after the jump here…

Sidewalk is much wider than the GV projects, but not very green

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These balconies face the alley

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The garage

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Rest of alley

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Fresno continues their policy of closing the sidewalk for no reason

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The street level is decent enough

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Looking up at their private courtyard

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The Van Ness side is built for retail

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The building closest to the camera is a very lovely two story restaurant space, which sadly has gone out of business twice.

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From the garage

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A short walk to the courthouse

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It looks like shortly after I made my visit, they took down the fencing. The official twitter page had this image recently:

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There’s an official website available, which includes floor plans, but no pricing.

There will be studio, one bedroom and two bedroom units, and what appears to be the world’s smallest fitness room. I’m sure they’ll post interior shots in the next few months.


Anyone know what goes on in this building? Sounded like a party.

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Fulton Mall from spiral garage

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Supposedly, someone is going to develop that lot

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The garage is 100% free….and 100% empty on weekends.

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One day Fulton Mall will be open to cars, and look just as lovely at Fulton Street

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I didn’t realize there was a beer garden here

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They need to work on this elevator if they want the residents to feel safe. Just on of 8 lights was working

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And random:
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Building Construction Update

Site work is well underway for the new school 

  • Wondra Excavating has started preparing our site for the construction of the new school.
  • Wondra has prepped the site for the domes, created retention ponds and grading for our driveways and parking lots.
  • The work is still weather dependent, but Wondra has much of the water lines and storm water structures in place.  They hope to leave the site after the water, sewer and storm water lines are in place and the gravel is in place for the drives and parking lots.

Dome constructor has begun working with the architects to complete the building shell design

  • South Industries is very experienced in this type of construction with the company’s founder being one of the patent holders on the dome construction process.
  • South Industries will begin dome construction in early spring
  • South Industries will use a mix of their current staff and local laborers.

Next phases of the construction process

  • The floor plans will be finalized in the next couple of weeks.
  • The driveway access to Hwy B and the Hwy B construction are currently being designed.
  • Architects and engineers will complete the development of shop drawings by the end of January
  • The rest of the project will be bid out at the end of January.

Athletic fields

  • The Board’s Athletic Fields Ad Hoc Committee is working with 6AM (aMadison marketing and design firm) to develop a fundraising plan for the athletic fields.
  • A website is in development which will provide information about the fundraising efforts.
  • This fall, the first ever Run for the Fields was held.
  • Cash donations can be sent to the district office and are being kept in a designated fund.

As stated before, the new facility is a long term asset for the community, and your school board and administrative team are committed to making the best decisions based on the most current information.  Watch for updates in the next issues of The Jay and once the dome construction begins, our website will also have a camera view of the process.

–Dr. Garvey

Lighting your dining table

The right lighting can make a room sing, but often our rooms are  off key. When you have a house of a certain age (30 years for me) there comes a time when you know you have  to update your look. When I started to change the lighting in my home, I began with the two over my tables because they would have the most impact.

dining table, lighting, drum pendant, contemporary,Designing Home, Margaret Ryall
Kitchen table
When you’re buying lighting to hang over a table you should consider these  factors:

Height of ceiling

A taller ceiling  often requires  larger fixtures; many new home builds in my area now have 9 foot ceilings.

Size and shape of table

Your fixture should complement not overpower your table.  You can also have lighting fixtures that are too small for a table.  I am particular about  what shape fixture I mount over a round table; I like to repeat the shape with a circular format, but that’s just me.

Height of homeowners

It is a fact that tall homeowners have a greater chance of continually bumping into lights hung too low over a table when they are setting or removing dishes.  Some people are so tall your would never mount pendants high enough!

Height above table

The specifics of how high to hang your fixture can be confusing because you will find a range of suggestions depending on which sites you consult.  Don’t let that deter you.  My adage is “Common sense prevails”.

I tend to think in terms of a range while taking other factors into account including: personal preference, the height of the homeowners, fixture size, style of fixture, ceiling height, task to be illuminated etc.  Read on for examples.

graphic lighting your dining table
Light Planning and Styling Guide

The general recommendations for  hanging a fixture over a table is 28 – 32 inches above the table if you have an eight foot ceiling.  This graphic fromwegotlites recommends 30 inches from the table for an 8 foot ceiling.   I placed my kitchen table pendant  at 32 inches from the table top so I wouldn’t continually bump it when working. It works most times, but when I reach in too far I still bump it.

dining room pendant, hanging height,
Art by Mike Gough

My dining room pendant is 34 inches from the table.   Being able to view my art collection to best advantage in very important to me, so  I moved the  dining room pendant up an additional two inches from the hanging height in the kitchen  so visitors can  view the art over the buffet without disruption while sitting in the living room.  You may not find this consideration in any lighting guide!

Another set of guidelines recommend measuring  from the floor  to the bottom of the shade and suggest 60 – 66 inches as reasonable.  Most tables are 30 inches high.  That would put the height from the floor  to my kitchen  shade at 62 inches, and my dining shade at 64 inches, both are within this guideline.

If you have ceilings higher than eight feet, go up 3 inches for each additional foot above eight feet.

Size of fixture

 For most applications the diameter of your light fixture should be at least 1/2 the width of your table or even up to 2/3 the width of your table.   My kitchen fixture is exactly one half the width of the table at 18 inches in diameter.  That’s the proportion I like.  I could have gone with a diameter of up to 24 in. without it looking too large.  My dining fixture is only 16 inches  in diameter, but looks larger.

Sizing based on room dimensions

graphic lighting your dining table, Designing Home, Margaret Ryall
Light Planning and Styling Guide 

There is another guideline for determining the size of your fixture. Add the length and width of your room together ( eg., 11 feet +14 feet ) and convert the sum to inches (25in.) and that should be the diameter of your  fixture.

Of course that is not a hard and fast rule, but it will provide a light fixture that is a focal point for the room.  This formula works better for a statement fixture  in an entrance or stairway.  You can see how it could get out of control in a dining room.  Eg. 15 feet + 20 feet would give a fixture diameter  of 35 in.  That’s the width of most dining tables.

Function of fixtures

The illumination given off by drum shades  is soft and calming,  but  bright enough to provide lighting for an entire room.  When a large drum pendant is hung over a table it not only anchors the vignette, but if placed on a dimmer the fixture can provide brighter light for any tasks done at the table and softer light while dining. While I don’t have anything against chandeliers, I don’t have any in my own home.I’m definitely into clean lines and a very sparse contemporary feel.

I am planning another post about lighting selection for various rooms as I get ready to replace the fixtures in my summer house.   Stay tuned.

What variables do you consider when hanging a light over a dining table?

If You Want To Go To Lamu Kenya Stay at the Manda Bay Lodge

There is nothing better than discovering a new place to go on holiday. Manda Bay Lodge is such a place. One of the great joys of Manda Bay Lodge is that it is far away from the hustle and bustle, and quite awkard to get to, but boy is it worth it.

You will need to know what makes Manda Bay the incredible place it is.There are several reasons. The purpose of this article is to try to show you the reader what they are. Please understand that I don’t own Manda, nor do I have anything to do with it, it’s simply I am in love with the whole idea.

You’ll need to know as a priority where Manda Bay is situated. Well it’s off the coast of Kenya in the northwestern tip of an archipelago called Lamu. Getting to Manda is the next question we need to answer.

The simple answer is by aeroplane. International flights arrive either into Mombasa or Nairobi. From there it will be a small aircraft which will take you to Lamu, and then onwards by private speedboat.

From the moment you get on the boat you will realise you are going to be looked after very well indeed. In fact when you come to make a judgement about Manda Bay, you will remember the magnificent staff and the caring management. You will already have a pretty good impression of Manda, but you now need to know more about the standard of accommodation, the food which is vital, and things to see and do.

The accommodation would be a good starting point. There are 16 Bandas of which 11 are right on the beach. Without exception the bandas are all well furnished, spacious, with great bathrooms, and lovely large comfortable beds. All the bandas have large well furnished verandas, and the views from the beachfront ones are spectacular.

Next we will look at the quality of the food. The sheer quality of the food may come as a surprise considering how remote it is here. The food is consistent and delicious which for a set menu is unusual. Freshly caught fish is a feature of the menus at Manda. You should note that the Chefs will cook pretty well anything you want. Dinner can be taken almost anywhere you want, from in the bush, to the beach to dinner party style at the Lodge.

Different dinner locations are a speciality at Manda Bay, and you can go off into the bush for a romantic oil lamp dinner, or join other guests for a candlelit beachfront dinner. To close on the food, the snacks at manda Bay are a feature, and your cookies and coffee in the morning will just give you a taste of things to come.

Manda Bay might be remote but there are plenty of things to do here. Firstly Manda Bay is often the second week of a safari honeymoon, so it is absolutely perfect for doing little or nothing but enjoying the scenery and devouring the food. You can on the other hand plan your days with the willing help of the owners, and go fishing, bird watching, sailing in an Arab Dhow, and in the evening go star gazing.

To summarise Manda Bay is the perfect romantic escape. If you like quality chic in a deserted location far from the madding crowd, then Manda Bay would be perfect.

High Temperature Fans

When fans are exposed to elevated temperatures, many aspects of the fan design must be reviewed to make sure the fan will withstand the extreme temperatures and that the fan is appropriately designed for the application. The fan engineer must understand the limitations of materials and various failure mechanisms, such as high stress, stress to rupture, and creep. Sometimes, it is necessary to consider high cycle fatigue, low cycle fatigue in cyclical operation with speed changes, and numerous start-stop cycles. If rapid temperature changes are encountered, transient analysis may be required due to thermal stresses. Depending on the exposed temperature levels, the following are to be considered:

Materials of construction for the wheel, shaft, and hub
Wheel to hub attachment
Materials of construction for the housing including insulation
Bearings and lubrication
Shaft seals
Shaft cooling (air-cooled, water-cooled, etc.)

Limits on the operating temperature for standard fans are defined by the arrangement of the fan. For example, the maximum temperature for a standard fan that does not have a bearing in the airstream can run up to 300F. For standard fans that have a bearing in the airstream, the maximum operating temperature is limited to the maximum temperature that the bearing can handle, which is typically about 130F.

Carbon steel, low alloy high strength steels, and chrome moly steels are satisfactory for a temperature range of 900 to 1000F, depending on stress levels. Heat resistant alloys such as stainless steels (304, 316, 347), Incalloy 800HT, 230, Inconel (600, 625, 617), Multimet, Haynes 25, etc. should be used for higher temperatures up to 1800F. Again, the material chosen also depends on the stress levels and the material properties at elevated temperatures. Temperature derates lower the maximum speed of a wheel to account for the lower material strength at elevated temperatures. The wheel must sustain the highest stress of all the fan components. It is very important that the material used on the wheel is strong enough to handle the stress at high temperatures. At higher temperatures, material eep must be considered.

Bearings usually require high temperature lubricants and sometimes circulating oil or static oil in a monoblock. Bearings can be kept cool in high temperature applications by using a shaft cooler and a shaft seal. For higher temperature fans, water cooling can be used to cool the shaft. In this case, the fan should be belt driven in order to install a rotating union to circulate the water over the shaft. Bearings should be kept out of a high temperature airstream and should never run in air temperatures hotter than 130F. The inboard bearing, which is the bearing nearest the fan housing, should be moved away from the fan housing to create some space for the heat to dissipate. The space created between the inboard bearing and the fan housing allows for the use of a shaft cooler and shaft seal. Bearing temperatures should be monitored and should not be allowed to exceed 200F at speeds higher than 2500 RPM and 220F at speeds below 2500 RPM. Bearings should be selected to allow for free movement of the shaft lengthwise due to temperature changes. One bearing should be fixed, serving as an anchor bearing to locate the shaft lengthwise. The bearing closest to the drive end is normally fixed. All other bearings should be expansion bearings to permit the shaft to move lengthwise. The thermal growth of the shaft may limit the bearing used.

A shaft cooler is a small fan that clamps on the shaft between the fan housing and the inboard bearing. The shaft cooler draws cool air over the shaft and bearings as the shaft rotates to dissipate the heat. A shaft cooler is recommended for all applications over 300F. Generally, the pedestal must be modified to allow room for the shaft cooler. This will increase the distance between the inboard bearing and the wheel. This dimension, referred to as the overhang dimension, is critical in determining the safe speed of the shaft. As the overhang dimension is increased, the shaft safe speed becomes lower. During maintenance repairs, it is very important that the overhang dimension is never increased. When the temperature exceeds 800F, it is necessary to separate the fan pedestal from the fan housing. By doing this, the amount of heat conducted through the pedestal and to the bearings and motor is greatly reduced.

For housing material, carbon steels are satisfactory for temperatures up to 800F and Corten is often used for temperatures up to 1000F. For higher temperatures, stainless steels and Inconel may be required. A customer may want to keep the heat of the airstream from heating up the fan housing and radiating out to the surrounding area. Insulating the fan accomplishes this. There a few ways to insulate a fan, but the main idea is to create a second fan housing offset from the main fan housing and then fill the gap between the two with insulation. It is common to have 2″ – 6″ of insulation depending on the temperature of the airstream and the need for the outer skin to be cool. See Figure 5 below. For fans that require an access door and also have an insulated housing, the access door is raised from the fan housing to the outer insulation skin by building a box between the two housings.

Up to this point, the discussion has centered on centrifugal fans. It should be mentioned that there are a few modifications that are specific to axial fans. Standard axial fans are good to 200F. By moving the bearing housing upstream of the wheel, opening the bearing housing to the wheel, and by adding a cooling wheel to the shaft to pull cool air over the shaft and bearings, the maximum operating temperature goes up to 300F. With a change of wheel material to aluminum A240, some axial fans can be made to run in temperatures as high as 600F.

When a fan is installed in a high temperature application, it is important for the engineer to properly design the components of the fan. This includes, but is not limited to, the wheel, shaft, bearings, and housing. The wheel material should be selected to provide adequate strength at the elevated temperature. The shaft and bearings may require a cooling system or other means to keep them from overheating. The bearings should have proper lubrication that can handle the higher operating temperatures. Sometimes an insulated housing should be manufactured to keep the heat from radiating out to the surroundings of the fan. High temperature fans, if designed properly, can provide years of dependable service.

Improve Your Flight Simulator Experience With Multiple Displays

If you are looking for a life-like flying experience, then advanced flight simulators such as the Flight Pro Sim and Microsoft Flight simulator should keep you in good stead. It is a huge selection from military jets, passenger jets, helicopters, cessnas and even the first Wright Brothers plane. The flight sim games also train pilots in different aircrafts and models and acquaint them with the varying systems and controls. And in many ways, it can be enjoyed at that level. She’s not a player, and just couldn’t pretty understand.

There are also Star Tours attractions at Disneyland Paris and Hong Kong Disneyland. Also included is a flight simulator for pilot familiarization and procedural training. First you must know what you really want and how realistic it must be for you Also your PC must be well designed. The engine of this aircraft, unlike the modern jet engine, used a piston engine rather than a turbine to drive its compressor. Since its introduction, there have been many reviews on it stating simply how classy the sport is.

It certainly was additionally done for them to supply unit training strategies for F-sixteen and KF-sixteen pilots, as well as upgrading simulation systems. If you’re searching for the top airline flight simulator video game offered, you ought to consider all these 3 areas. The flight enthusiast, the companion of the cave approved Prof. It truly does feel like you’re traversing the planet in the plane of your choice. Metal is the ultimate material for working with if you are looking for strength.

You should definitely find a very good simulator. Headsets are a good idea as they will help to avoid distracting others in your area. we staid for the 1903 Wright Flyer, as we yearned to see if it was likely to fly over my own roof tiles in New Heaven and we are me, we flew over my house. Flight sim games can be modified to your needs and preferences. The only thing that would be more realistic is actually flying in a plane.

Microsoft is supposed to be releasing version 11, and it keeps getting pushed back and back. Google Earth is a free application from Google that lets you view all locations around the planet. From that time onwards, I have always taken my flight simulation very serious and tried to make the experience as realistic as possible. As you can see from this F 16 flight simulator Review the F16 Fighter Plane Simulator Experience is not only a huge amount of fun but a vital tool to employed by airforce personel around the world. I’m not trying to badmouth Microsoft as they were the king of flight sim for quite a while, but they have greatly fallen off.

A brief look at all of these points, you really feel knowing is pretty sensible. On top of that, if it’s a flight video game, it must contain a bunch of airplanes. You can get training about the aircraft machinery, learn to read maps, make logs, how the control system works, just be using a real flight simulator. However, many of those extra features don’t actually contribute anything to your enjoyment, which is the most important part of buying video games. You should also be aware of precisely how authentic the airports and climate conditions are as well.

And on many levels, it can be enjoyed at that level. Superb graphics have recreated all the major airports in the world with their slopes, lighting, and surrounding topography. Even the pilots use airplane simulators before they ever take the plane and the air. Whenever you get to choose the kind of airplane you fly, you are able to fly the Concorde, or you can fly a fighter jet. Very good graphics have recreated all the chief airports in the world together with their slopes, lighting, and surrounding topography.

System necessities of the package. The delivery company must also be a reputed company in order to ensure the safe arrival of your product. It was just released some weeks ago, and is my top pick to get a flight simulator for 2011. hydraulic or electrical – or the cockpit instruments. If you are looking to find the best airline flight emulator video game, then I am here to guide you.

Are Singaporean Guys Romantic

It is a very controversial topic and many people, especially after their weddings, have different opinions on this.

Are Singaporean guy romantic?

In fact, there are some male friends of mine who are.

I remembered a male friend of mine deployed 10 of his friends to make a heart using fire sprinklers at a beach. The size was about half of a basketball court. It was their second year into their relationship.

Another male friend of mine sprinkled rose petals in a hotel room during Valentines Day and lined the petals from the middle of the bed to the door.

The third male friend of mine inflated tens of heart-shaped balloons using helium gas and filled his cars boot with them. He blindfolded his girlfriend and led her to open the boot by herself and the amzing sight was when all the balloons flew up.

Of course again, these special acts are done during special days such as wedding anniversaries, birthdays, Valentines Days and even wedding proposals.

What about normal days, especially after their wedding?

Many of my female friends complained that reality set in once after their weddings ended and their husbands cut down the surprises and gifts for them.

For a moment, they realised they were getting more before their weddings.

I heard that from a lady that her husband was absolutely not a romantic man who doesnt even cooked instant noodle for her. Thus, she could only wish her husband do romantic things only when she sleeps.

Others grumbled that they never receive a paper aeroplane from their husbands and getting paper cranes from them can only be a dream.

I feel whether romantic or not, it is really up to the couples themselves to judge. Some can shout I love you for tens of times in public and it may be seen as not really romantic by others. Some find it embarrasing in fact.

Some guys can do a million loving things to please their wives but their wives may find their high expectations unmet.

Others easily get delighted over simple acts of care and concern.

Some easily satisfied couples find eating muffins together at their balcony romantic though it is just a plain muffin. To them, it is the quality time that is spent together.

For me, I made a point to sprinkle our daily routine life with little romance now and then.

These are 5 things I made it a point to do:

First, I buy her flowers once a month to reward her hard work in her career.

Second, I buy her little gifts which I know will amuse her.

Third, I get her fruits and food that she loves to eat.

Fourth, a short massage done a day definitely can chase the stress away.

Fifth, hand-make her gifts rather than buy.

You can see that these are some simple ways to inject more romance into your relationship.

What you can do right now is ask yourself what your spouse like which does not require money? Maybe just singing a song for her even though you may not be the best singer. But Im sure you are much better than William Hung of past season of American Idol.

Or get a piece of A4 paper and write I love you, dear and thanks so much for being my husband! You see, this only takes a few minutes to do it.

Go do it right now and you are a step closer making your marriage a more romantic one.

Learning to Fly – Introduction to Radio Controlled Aeroplanes

Radio controlled aeroplanes are model aeroplanes that are controlled remotely, usually with a hand-held radio transmitter and a receiver within the radio controlled aeroplane. Unlike RC cars, boats and such, radio controlled aeroplanes bring the third dimension to the controls, making the radio controls and flying the plane more challenging, but much more fulfilling and entertaining at the same time.

Many begin their RC hobby with land-based vehicles, but there is no reason why one couldn’t “jump” straight into the aeroplanes. Yes, flying is more complicated than controlling a RC car for example, but it’s not too complicated when you get the hang of it. However, because flying radio controlled aeroplanes takes a bit of coordination and patience, it is not suitable for everyone.

The most important thing is to get the correct RC plane for your skills, if you’re complete beginner, you should look for the beginner models and build up your skills before moving on to the more advanced, more complex models.

With more beginner-friendly models being available, flying radio controlled aeroplanes is a popular hobby that has been growing rapidly worldwide. During the last couple of years RC technology has improved rabidly, bringing more efficient motors, lighter batteries and improved radio control systems to the market. At the same time, new features and models have been created especially for beginners, anti-crash systems have made flying easier, safer and more fun, while the ready-to-fly RC aeroplanes have brought those the hobby that are not so much into model building.

This evolution in the RC gear has made the starting a radio controlled aeroplanes hobby less expensive than it was, say three-four years ago. Today, you can start a new hobby with RC aeroplanes with a fraction of the cost, get a lot more value for your money and get started a lot faster and easier.

There are great sources of information about radio controlled aeroplanes on the Internet and many RC clubs, shops and manufacturers are sharing their knowledge for free, making all the information available new and more advanced RC hobbyists alike. With all the information online, loads of articles, guides and videos about RC planes being available, learning to fly RC planes is also a lot simpler than it was before.

This doesn’t mean one shouldn’t look for help and friends from local RC clubs or hobby shops. However, the possibilities to self-study all the needed information about radio controlled aeroplanes online has removed all the barriers, giving thousands of new RC enthusiasts a great chance to start a new entertaining and fun hobby.

Ford Figo – Legend Of B-segment Hatchback

From the launch of Ford Figo in the month of March this year, Figo has been strengthening the position it holds out there of Indian Automobiles. This is a truth which might be further explained by the reserving determine of 25,000 and the automotive has reached the milestone of a hundred in a day. The Ford Figo is eager to get whatever they can from the conditions prevailing in the markets. The Ford Figo comes without any purpose on a particular sort of buyer and this could easily be seen the growth which the automobile has achieved in several levels of the markets in India. The Ford Figo is repeatedly getting optimistic progress concerning the market shares and is growing with time. So what makes the Ford Figo a profitable automotive in India? That is what we might be talking about in this article.

The first thing which makes Ford Figo an fascinating car and a gorgeous one as effectively is that it continues the legacy which it holds in the platform of all the cars from it which can be particularly designed for India. Like all of the previous automobiles from Ford, the Figo isnt a bit totally different on this scenario. Approaching to the construction of the automobile, the automobile has been blended up with some Kinetic Design Cues and this looks really good on the car, growing the wonder it holds. Ford Figo has got about 84 prototype mules which have been constructed for it. Out of these, 64 have been made in India. This makes the prices on the automobile lower and tends to achieve more gross sales than ever before. The performance check and every part which were carried out by Ford had been finished in accordance with the Indian conditions resulting Figo to be designed in the best? Indian? Ways. All this being accomplished, Ford has left no stones unturned to make Figo a market success.

Discussing the looks of the car right here, I’d say that the automotive has been really athletic and handsome in its look and the toning achieved with the body together with the design cues is perfect. With all this, the automobile seems to be actually good-looking and appealing at its first look. This further increases the curiosity of people in the automotive that performs well and appears good as well. Approaching to the engine, the automobile has a 1.2-Litre Engine which has been designed jointly with Mazda. The engine supplies sufficient power to the automotive and the long stroke cylinder dimensions makes the automotive fairly well on the torque side making it a very good possibility in the traffic circumstances which are faced in India. Now everyone would like something that goes based on the traffic situations in his/her nation, this is exactly what Ford Figo provides in India. Ford Figo has the petrol and diesel engine and both have been spectacular underneath totally different driving conditions. The driving expertise of Ford Figo is very nice and the trip is really firm. Additionally, the steering works quite nicely with great efficiency. All the very best that you would be able to expect from a trip will be found in Ford Figo, so why shouldnt it be successful?

Curved Deck Railing

The use of a curved deck railing is very important on every deck. It is an art piece used to enhance the curve appeal of your deck, in case you are planning to build a curved one. Without it, your curved deck will not be as good looking as you would want it to appear. On top of that, it won’t look complete at all. So while you are still in the planning stage of your deck, including it in the design if you want a curved deck will be best. This way, you wont have to try injecting it into the lay out and making the trouble of redesigning the entire task.
Building a curved deck railing is a bit difficult, which is why it is not recommended for DIYs. But there are real inventive and skilled people who can actually do the job. There are prefabricated curved deck railings that you can acquire for the building plans. These are perfectly crafted to match standard sizes and shapes of a curved deck so you will need no more cuttings or modifications on both your deck and your acquired prefab deck railing.
Construction of curved deck railings is just like constructing any other railing. It has to have a vertical baluster, a top railing, and a curved cap railing (which is not found in a standard railing). The vertical baluster is always included in this type of construction because it adds support and strength to the structure. The top railing is its highest profile, while the curved cap rail is its completing part.
If you are wish to do the installation by yourself, you got to have a complete understanding of geometrical principals and the required skills in preparing detailed drawings. Some of the important drawing tools you will need are protractor, compass, and scale ruler.
You think that curved railing is just one of the types of railings? There are still many different types of curved railings you can find. Some of these are listed below for you to choose the best that will fit your railing construction plans:
Curved stainless steel. This is extruded steel that are modular curved. This is the type of curved railings that can be designed in every curve you have for that authentic and great looks you want for your railings.
Curved wooden. Laminating together four strips of 1 1/2 inch wide x 3/4 inch thick cedar plywood strips with heavy-duty exterior glue is how curved wooden railings are made. This type of railing can be DIYed with the use of clamps to hold them in place and slightly bending the plywood strips.
Wrought iron. For more durable kind of curved railing, you can also use wrought iron. This type of material needs special equipments to have it bend.
Aluminum. Aluminums are very durable type of material for your planned deck railing less the weight.
Read full articles about glass deck railing and deck ideas available here.

Choosing A Flying Experience Gift

I’m sure you have seen them advertised on the Internet however have never been quite sure exactly what they entitle? Quite a few people have often put the question to me ‘how can you associate flying as a gift?’

If you are looking for different gift ideas this Christmas, then a flying experience certainly fits the bill. There are quite a few different categories on offer which we will cover in this article, all of which will give the opportunity for your special someone to have complete freedom of the skies. Excuse the pun ‘it will certainly leave their head in the clouds’.

There is such a vast amount of experience gifts available all giving the opportunity to view the world from a different angle. The most popular of them I will go over in this article. For those laid back types out there, consider a microflying experience or a sightseeing flight and enjoy the peace and quietness of roaming through the sky admiring the stunning views below. For those romantic types out there you could consider a hot air balloon trip for two. Casually float across the English landscapes and toast the occasion with a glass of bubbly. If you are in need of something a little more action packed however then try an adrenaline filled aerobatic flying experience and perform loop the loops through the air, or even better put the nerves to the test with a skydiving activity. If throwing yourself out of a plane at 12,000 ft doesn’t get the blood flowing I don’t know what will!

Is the above beginning to whet your appetite? Then read on to get a better idea of great flying experience gifts available.

Microlight Flying.

Microlight flying is the ideal option to get airborne and have a go for the first time at flying yourself. Once you have been through a general introduction to the plane and the pilot has taken off he will then hand over the controls allowing you to enjoy piloting a small aircraft.
Trust me; it is definitely an fantastic feeling having the power and freedom of flight when being behind the controls.

Microlight planes are tiny little aircrafts which are incredibly easy to manoeuvre. They are great for short journeys over the countryside with their fantastic panoramic views. They remind me of early aviation – pioneering, thrilling and a touch eccentric!

Helicopter Flying.

Nothing quite matches the excitement of a vertical take-off. It is certainly more enjoyable than taking off in a conventional aeroplane. From the minute the helicopter lifts off to the minute it gracefully settles back on the ground you really feel the rush as you can hear the great roar from the rotary blades spinning round.

After a brief induction you will normally be given the chance to view and listen to the helicopter up close and personal. Then it’s time for take-off! Climb through the side door (I always feel like the rich and famous when traveling by helicopter) then sit back as you quickly rise to over 1,000 ft. You will hover over vast landscapes reaching top speeds of 120 mph whilst having the chance to talk with the pilot using the headsets before gracefully returning to earth.

Hang Gliding and Paragliding.

This is the nearest thing that will let us to experience what Mother Nature never gave us – wings!
Hang Gliding and Paragliding are both very similar and you will regularly find the two next to one another launching from a high point over breath-taking views below.

Hang Gliding involves holding onto a bar underneath a wing with nothing else between you and the ground. It definitely is the nearest thing to flying like a bird you will ever get. You use the bar and your own body weight to control the direction and speed of the glider. If you have ever seen one in the air without realising what it was and saying ‘I’d love to try that’ now you do!

Paragliding involves sitting in a harness with a parachute overhead, that’s all there is to it! They can be either motorised or not. None powered ones last a long time and can fly for great distances. Similar to Hang Gliders the direction is controlled by body weight whereas the speed is controlled by foot and brakes by hand.

After a quick induction with the equipment and controls you will join an instructor in a tandem harness. Once secure you will be either lifted into the air by a microflight place connected to you using a harness or by starting from a high point. If by a microlight plane once you have risen to a height of around 2,000 ft the harness will be disconnected and the microlight plane will fly away. You then have the freedom to enjoy the magnificent views and coast lazily through the skies before coming to a gentle landing below.


For me this is the ultimate adrenaline ride. It’s one of those experiences all people must try at least once in their life. It’s also one of those things you will talk about time and time again throughout your life!

Leaping out of plane 10,000 ft in the air is very scary I must admit, however you will be strapped to a professional who will take care of everything on the way down. All you have to do is appreciate the ride, scream a little (or a lot like me) and remember to keep your eyes open!

Your day will as always start with an induction on skydiving, safety and landing procedures. You will then board the plane; this is when the stomach really starts tightening in knots. Once airborne you will be attached up to an instructor and begin to realise there is no chance of you getting out of it now! All I can say is that once you leap out of the plane and you experience free fall it really is such an unbelievable feeling I couldn’t begin to explain it. After around 30 seconds or so and traveling at 120 mph the instructor will release the parachute (as much as I enjoyed the free falling this bit was a relief!) and control after the descent while you try to relax and take in the surroundings.

Aerobatic Flights.

Have you ever wanted to fly like Maverick in Top Gun? Do you love the feeling you get in your stomach when on a roller coaster ride? Experience wingovers, barrel turns cuban 8’s (no idea what they are exactly either) and learn just what one of these planes is capable of.

The day kicks off with the normal induction before climbing aboard your plane. Once airborne your pilot will put the plane through it’s paces. Make sure you have an empty stomach as the plane goes through various manoeuvres such as rolls, loops and spins. Then if you are brave enough to try yourself you will get the chance to take over the controls and put your skills to the test. As Iceman said to Maverick ‘You can be my wing man anytime’.

This is something I have yet to try however is most certainly on the agenda. I expect the trill of performing stunts through the air make a memorable experience!

Hot Air Ballooning.

Let’s be honest, the times we see a hot air balloon drifting through the skies against a beautiful background we all stand back and stare. Imagine what it would be like to look in the opposite direction for once?

Once you have met the pilot and been through a flight safety briefing you will join in with helping inflate and get ready the balloon. Then it’s time to climb into the basket and slowly ascend up to heights of 5,000 ft. You needn’t have to worry about the wind either as the balloon moves with the wind meaning you won’t feel any. Just enjoy the peace and tranquility (in between the propane burners) as you casually drift through the air looking down on the the scenery down below.

Indoor Skydiving.

I must admit when I first heard about indoor skydiving I pictured a huge indoor tower which people would jump from! I definitely felt quite stupid when I understood it’s actually an vertically blowing air tunnel. It’s basically the same experience and feeling of normal skydiving without the fear and the views, however at the same time you definitely feel safer and don’ have to have an instructor attached to you.

The day will start with a short class brief and video before changing into the required clothing. You will then join with wait amongst people and take it in turns to float above the extremely powerful blast of air. This is where you get to enjoy a free falling experience.This is a great alternative to normal skydiving for youngsters, elderly or people who just have a head for heights!

I hope some of the information above clarifies things a bit if you are contemplating a flying red letter day activity as a gift. There are certainly lots of options that range from suiting people who just love high thrill seeking activities to those who are a little more reserved!